insulin-like growth factor. Researchers have recently noted that men with high blood levels of this hormone-like substance may be more likely to develop prostate cancer.
an operation in which the end of the small intestine, the ileum, is brought out through an opening in the abdomen. The contents of the intestine, unformed stool, are expelled through this opening into a bag called an appliance.
methods used to produce a picture of internal body structures. Some imaging methods used to detect cancer are x-rays, CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound.
the complex system by which the body resists infection by microbes such as bacteria or viruses and rejects transplanted tissues or organs. The immune system may also help the body fight some cancers.
immunocytochemistry or immunohistochemistry
a laboratory test that uses antibodies to detect specific chemical antigens in cells or tissue samples viewed under a microscope. This procedure can be used to help detect and classify cancer cells. It is also one of the methods used for estrogen receptor assays and progesterone receptor assays. See also monoclonal antibodies.
study of how the body resists infection and certain other diseases. Knowledge gained in this field is important to cancer treatments based on the principles of immunology.
a state in which the ability of the body's immune system to respond is decreased. This condition may be present at birth; or it may be caused by certain infections (such as human immunodeficiency virus or HIV); or by certain cancer therapies, such as cytotoxic (cancer-cell killing) drugs, radiation, and bone marrow transplantation.
treatments that promote or support the body's immune system response to a disease such as cancer.
an artificial form used to restore the shape of an organ after surgery, for example, a breast implant.
not being able to have or keep an erection of the penis.